How Healthy Self-Esteem and Clinical Narcissism Differ
Confusing healthy self-esteem with narcissism can trivialize narcissistic abuse. KEY POINTS Individuals with healthy self-image can balance high self-esteem with prosocial behaviors that nurture reciprocal relational dynamics. Clinical narcissism is characterized by authoritarianism, envy, grandiosity, shallowness, and sociopathic deficit of empathy and remorse. Clinical narcissism can arise from insecure parent-child attachment during early childhood and a subsequently underdeveloped prefrontal cortex.